On opioids specifically, the rankings in 2016 included some additional information on deaths. The measure is calculated as the number of deaths due to drug poisoning per 100,000 population. The data come from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and its National Center for Health Statistics and are further refined by foundation and university experts.

The foundation has a handful of other measures touching on opioid use and treatment, such as analyses on so-called “Good Samaritan” drug overdose laws, access to naloxone among first responders, and the effectiveness of prescription drug monitoring programs.